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Grote verschillen tussen EU-lidstaten in loonkosten per uur (en)

Met dank overgenomen van Eurostat (ESTAT), gepubliceerd op dinsdag 24 april 2012.

The average hourly labour costs were estimated to be €23.1 in the EU271 business economy2 in 2011, and €27.6 in the euro area1 (EA17). However, this average masks significant differences between Member States, with hourly labour costs ranging from €3.5 to €39.3. Labour costs are made up of costs for wages & salaries, plus non-wage costs such as employer's social contributions.

In 2011, the highest hourly labour costs were estimated for Belgium (€39.3), Sweden (€39.1), Denmark (€38.6), France (€34.2), Luxembourg (€33.7), the Netherlands (€31.1) and Germany (€30.1). The lowest hourly labour costs were estimated for Bulgaria (€3.5), Romania (€4.2 in 20103), Lithuania (€5.5) and Latvia (€5.9). While comparing labour cost estimates in euro over time, it should be noted that data for those Member States outside the euro area are influenced by exchange rate movements.

These preliminary estimates for 2011, published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, cover enterprises with more than 10 employees and are based on the 2008 Labour Cost Survey and the Labour Cost Index.

  • 2010 data

Eurostat estimates of Hourly Labour Costs - Methodological Notes

Data sources

Labour cost index

The Labour Cost Index (LCI) is a short-term indicator showing the development of hourly labour costs incurred by employers. It is calculated dividing the labour cost by the number of hours worked. Labour costs are made up of costs for wages & salaries, plus non-wage costs such as employer's social contributions. These do not include vocational training costs or other expenditures such as recruitment costs, spending on working clothes, etc. The LCI covers all business units irrespective of the number of employees and all economic activities except agriculture, forestry and fishing, private households and extra-territorial organisations.

Labour Cost Survey

The Labour cost survey (LCS) provides structural information on labour costs. The survey is conducted every four years. The most recent LCS refers to information for the year 2008. The LCS covers observation units with 10 or more employees and all economic activities except agriculture, forestry and fishing, public administration, private households and extra-territorial organisations.

Estimation method

Estimates for years after 2008 are obtained by extrapolating the 2008 LCS hourly labour cost of the business economy in euro and national currency using the LCI.

The non-adjusted LCI is used in the calculations for all Member States, except for Denmark, France and Sweden where the working day-adjusted LCI is used.

The LCI of countries is unaffected by exchange rate movements, which are only taken into account when calculating the European aggregates. In order to use the LCI for calculating monetary estimates in euros, exchange rate movements have to be incorporated. Therefore, for non-euro area countries an exchange-rate adjusted LCI index is used.

Additional information is available at:

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Labour_cost_index_-_recent_trends#Hourly_labour_cost_in_euros

  • The EU27 includes Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), the Czech Republic (CZ), Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), Estonia (EE), Ireland (IE), Greece (EL), Spain (ES), France (FR), Italy (IT), Cyprus (CY), Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Luxembourg (LU), Hungary (HU), Malta (MT), the Netherlands (NL), Austria (AT), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovenia (SI), Slovakia (SK), Finland (FI), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). The euro area (EA17) consists of Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland.
  • Business economy includes NACE Rev.2 sections B to N: B Mining and quarrying; C Manufacturing; D Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; E Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities;

    F Construction; G Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; H Transportation and storage;

    I Accommodation and food service activities; J Information and communication; K Financial and insurance activities;

    L Real estate activities; M Professional, scientific and technical activities; N Administrative and support service activities.

  • Data for Romania and Spain for 2009 and 2010 are not estimated by Eurostat, but are annual data provided by the Member States.
 

Issued by:

Eurostat Press Office

Tim ALLEN

Tel: +352-4301-33 444

eurostat-pressoffice@ec.europa.eu

For further information on data:

Hannah KIIVER

Tel: +352-4301-38 438

Luis BIEDMA

Tel: +352-4301-34 728

estat-labour-cost-indices@ec.europa.eu

Eurostat news releases on the internet: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

Labour cost per hour in euros

 
 

2008

2009

2010

2011

EU27

21.6

22.1

22.5

23.1

EA17

25.8

26.5

26.9

27.6

Belgium

35.6

37.0

38.2

39.3

Bulgaria

2.5

2.9

3.1

3.5

Czech Republic

9.3

9.3

9.9

10.5

Denmark

35.4

36.5

37.6

38.6

Germany

28.4

29

29.1

30.1

Estonia

8.0

7.9

7.7

8.1

Ireland

27.2

28.0

27.9

27.4

Greece

16.5

17.6

17.5

:

Spain

18.9

20.0*

20.2*

20.6

France

31.8

32.1

33.1

34.2

Italy

24.5

25.6

26.1

26.8

Cyprus

15.3

15.9

16.2

16.5

Latvia

5.9

5.9

5.7

5.9

Lithuania

6.0

5.6

5.3

5.5

Luxembourg

30.8

32

32.7

33.7

Hungary

7.9

7.3

7.3

7.6

Malta

11.2

11.3

11.5

11.9

Netherlands

29.2

29.8

30.5

31.1

Austria

26.5

27.7

28.0

29.2

Poland

7.5

6.4

7.0

7.1

Portugal

11.5

11.9

12.0

12.1

Romania

4.1

4.0*

4.2*

:

Slovenia

13.4

13.8

14.1

14.4

Slovakia

7.6

7.9

8.0

8.4

Finland

27.6

28.7

28.9

29.7

Sweden

33.8

31.7

36.0

39.1

United Kingdom

21.1

18.9

20.0

20.1

Norway

37.8

36.9

41.4

44.2

Labour cost per hour in national currency (countries outside the euro area)

 
 

2008

2009

2010

2011

Bulgaria

BGN

5.0

5.6

6.2

6.8

Czech Republic

CZK

233

245

249

258

Denmark

DKK

264

271

280

288

Latvia

LVL

4.2

4.2

4.0

4.2

Lithuania

LTL

20.7

19.4

18.4

19.0

Hungary

HUF

2000

2040

2020

2130

Poland

PLN

26.3

27.7

28.0

29.3

Romania

ROL

15.2

17.0*

17.7*

:

Sweden

SEK

325

337

344

353

United Kingdom

GBP

16.8

16.8

17.2

17.5

Norway

NOK

311

322

332

345

  • Data not available
  • Annual data provided by Member State

Source: 2008 - Labour Cost Survey; 2009, 2010 and 2011 - Eurostat estimate


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